INCOME TAX: Overview, e Filing and Calculator

income tax
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The majority of nations in the world impose income taxes. Generally, different types of taxes have different tax systems that can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. And, countries that impose income taxes typically employ either a territorial or residential system. Under the territorial system, only local income, or income from sources within the nation, is subject to taxation. While in the residential system, residents pay income tax on both their local and foreign income. Non-residents, in their case, are only taxed on their local income. However, it is recommended that one establish a basic understanding of these processes. This will make the process of calculating the income tax using a tax calculator easy while also broadening your knowledge of how the e-file of income tax return works.


An income tax is the type of tax imposed on individuals or businesses by the government based on their earned income or profits. As a rule, an income tax otherwise known as taxable income multiplied by the applicable tax rate equals the amount of income subject to taxation. However, the taxable income rate may vary depending on the nature of the taxpayer and the source of the income.

The largest amount of money brought in by the federal government of the United States comes from the individual portion of the federal income tax. This is basically collected by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).  Almost every working adult in the United States must submit an annual tax return to the Internal Revenue Service. In addition to that, most people also contribute to the government by having payroll taxes deducted from their paychecks regularly.

Taxes on income are computed in the United States using tax rates that range from 10% all the way up to 37%. However, by utilizing available tax credits and deductions, taxpayers can reduce their overall tax liability as well as the burden that this creates for them.

Taxes might be confusing, but a financial advisor can help you figure out how they’ll affect your plans. To ensure that you are adequately preparing for the future, financial advisors may also assist you with investment and financial planning, covering retirement, homeownership, insurance, and a variety of other topics.

What is Your Income Tax?

The income tax is a kind of direct tax levied on individuals’ and companies’ income or earnings by the government.

The various forms of taxable income or earnings subject to taxation include wages, salaries, business earnings, dividends, interest, royalties, rents, gaming winnings, product sales, as well as other sources of income 

In most cases, when people refer to taxes on income, they are basically referring to individual income taxes that employees and other individuals who make income pay annually. Of course, this applies not only to individuals but also to businesses, estates, trusts, and other legal organizations that are subject to income taxation.

Who Must Pay Income Tax?

The income tax is something that is functioning in the majority of states, but some states do not require it. On the other hand, the federal income tax applies to all U.S. citizens and permanent residents, and all must honor it. However, it is not a necessity for not everyone to file an income tax return. As the single greatest donor, its primary function is to provide revenue for the federal government’s budget.

The amount of tax that an individual is required to pay is directly proportional to the individual’s taxable income.

Calculating Income Tax

The income tax structure in the United States is one that is progressive. This indicates that there are greater tax rates applicable to incomes of a higher level.

These tax rates are dubbed “marginal tax rates.” This is because they do not apply to an individual’s overall income; rather, they only apply to a certain range of that individual’s income. The term “brackets” is another name for these ranges of values.

The tax rate applicable to a given tax bracket is applied to the portion of an individual’s income that falls inside that bracket. Federal income tax brackets for the 2022 tax year (these are the taxes due at the beginning of 2023) are, however, shown in the table below.

2022- 2023 Income Tax Brackets

With a tax calculator, you use the following ranges of value for calculating your taxable income rates;

Single Filers

Taxable IncomeRate
$0 – $9,95010%
$9,950 – $40,52512%
$40,525 – $86,37522%
$86,375 – $164,92524%
$164,925- $209,42532%
$209,425 – $523,60035%

Married, Filing Jointly

Taxable IncomeRate
$0 – $19,90010%
$19,900 – $81,05012%
$81,050 – $172,75022%
$172,750 – $329,85024%
$329,850 – $418,85032%
$418,850 – $628,30035%

Married, Filing Separately

Taxable IncomeRate
$0 – $9,95010%
$9,950 – $40,52512%
$40,525- $86,37522%
$86,375 – $164,92524%
$164,925- $209,42532%
$209,425 – $314,15035%

Head of Household

Taxable IncomeRate
$0 – $14,20010%
$14,200 – $54,20012%
$54,200 – $86,35022%
$86,350 – $164,90024%
$164,900 – $209,40032%
$209,400 – $523,60035%

Whether you are a single person, a married couple, or the primary breadwinner, you will see that the brackets change accordingly. The various classifications are referred to by the term “filing status.”People who are married have the option of filing either individually or jointly. Despite the common wisdom that says it’s best to file jointly, there are times when doing so is really counterproductive.

Calculating Income Tax Using Exemptions and Deductions

Calculating how much income tax you owe is not quite as straightforward as it may first appear. To begin, federal tax rates are solely applicable to a person’s taxable income. This is not the same as your entire revenue (your gross income). However, since the United States enables taxpayers to deduct certain income from gross income before calculating their income tax, the taxpayers’ actual taxable income is always less than their gross income.

Arriving at the adjusted gross income (AGI) is the starting point for calculating your income tax. You can arrive at this by making specific modifications to the gross income.  After you have determined your adjusted gross income, you can then determine your taxable income. This is simply by taking your adjusted gross income and deducting any deductions for which you are eligible (either itemized or standard).

Additionally, it is important to take note that personal exemptions are no longer available at the federal level. One strategy for reducing one’s taxable income prior to 2018 was to claim a personal exemption. However, the new tax law that took effect at the end of 2017 did away with the personal exemption.

The deductive process is a little bit more difficult. Hence, a significant number of taxpayers make use of the standard deduction. The amounts they can deduct are given in the table below in relation to various filing statuses.

Federal Standard Deductions 2022 – 2023

The below table shows numbers or the range of figures you can use for calculating your income tax using deductions

Filing StatusStandard Deduction Amount
Married, Filing Jointly$25,100
Married, Filing Separately$12,550
Head of Household$18,800

However, some taxpayers may prefer to itemize their deductions. This involves deducting specific expenditures and expenses that are eligible for deduction. Interest on student loans, IRA contributions, moving costs, as well as health insurance premiums paid by the self-employed are all examples of deductible expenses. Some other typical types of itemized deductions are:

  • A deduction for the amount of state and local taxes that have been paid
  • Deduction for interest payments made on a mortgage:
  • Deductions for donations made to nonprofit organizations
  • The deduction for medical costs that are more than 7.5% of adjusted gross income

Be mindful of the fact that the vast majority of taxpayers do not itemize their deductions. So, in the case where the standard deduction exceeds your total itemized deductions (as it does for many filers), you will be able to receive the standard deduction.

After taking into account all of your deductions and subtracting them from your adjusted gross income, you will arrive at your taxable income. If you do not have any taxable income, then you are exempt from paying any income tax at all.

Income Tax Calculator

The income tax calculator is a straightforward online tool, and with only a few clicks, you can get the estimation of your taxable income as well as the taxes that will be due.

After you input all of the essential information into the income tax calculator on the website, it will provide you with an estimate of the amount of tax that you are responsible for paying depending on your taxable income.

So, utilizing the income tax calculator is a fantastic way to have a better understanding of your current tax status and plan for the future. The calculator will also assist you in comprehending some of the primary elements that contribute to the estimation of your income tax return.

How Much Tax Do You Pay on $10000?

If you are a resident of Texas, USA, and make $10,000 each year, the amount of tax that you are subject to paying is $765. Your take-home pay will amount to $9,235 every year, which is the equivalent of $770 per month. Meanwhile, your marginal tax rate is the same as your average tax rate, which comes out to 7.7%. This marginal tax rate basically indicates that any additional income you get in the short term will be subject to taxation at this rate. For example, if your salary goes up by $100, the government will take $7.65 out of that, so the total amount you bring home after taxes will be $92.35.

e File of Income Tax Return

Simply put, to e-file your income tax return means submitting your return using an electronic system. According to the most recent notice from the income tax department, you can file tax returns electronically (e- filing). However, those who are really elderly and filling may do so in print form.

Electronic filing (or “e-file”) is a service that enables individuals and businesses to electronically submit their federal and state income tax returns to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Taxpayers can anticipate the following advantages of using the e-filing of your income tax return method. This is also the quickest and most accurate option:

  • Tax refunds for individuals are processed more quickly.
  • Once you get approval of your e-file return process, you can expect a refund within two to four weeks.
  • A processed and accepted e- file income tax return is eligible for direct deposit refunds. You can receive this as quickly as five business days following submission.

Individuals are becoming more accurate in their tax filings. If there are any mathematical mistakes on an income tax return, the e- file service will fix them immediately. Statistically, less than half of all electronically filed tax returns contain an error.

Using the e- file method, taxpayers will receive confirmation that their tax returns have been received and processed by both the Internal Revenue Service.

How Do I Know If I Will Get a Tax Refund?

You can determine whether or not you need to file a tax return for this year by following these step

  • Check your earnings to discover if they were high enough that it warrants you to e- file an income tax return.
  • Make a decision regarding the tax filing status that suits you the best (you may be required to file a tax return depending on your filing status, income, and age)
  • See whether or not your income from retirement is subject to taxation if youé retire.
  • Determine whether or not you are eligible to claim specific tax credits and deductions in order to reduce the amount of tax that you are responsible for paying.
  • Check to determine if you are required to file your taxes by using the Interactive Tax Assistant.

How Can I Get a Bigger Tax Refund?

Increasing your tax refund is possible and there are a variety of things you can do to make that happen. To get the most out of your deductions, claims, and credits, you will basically need to optimize them. Even sometimes, the way you file your return could result in a larger refund. So, use the most advanced tax preparation software that you have access to if you truly want to increase your tax return.

In addition, a good tax service. A reliable tax preparation firm will assist you in claiming every deduction and credit for which you are eligible. You won’t have to worry about getting lost or confused as you work through the process of filing your return. This is because this method will walk you through it step by step.

You may be able to get a bigger tax refund by utilizing these strategies:

  • Identify in a correct manner any children, friends, or relatives that you are assisting.
  • If you are able to itemize your deductions, you should not accept the standard deduction.
  • Deduct charitable payments, even if you don’t itemize.
  • If you did not get a stimulus payment, claim the recovery rebate.
  • Make contributions to your retirement plan or any other plans that qualify.
  • Check to see whether you qualify for any of these lesser-known tax breaks.

What Tax Can I Claim Back?

You should think about whether you qualify for tax deductions and tax credits. It is also crucial to evaluate whether you should itemize when filing your income tax return in order to minimize your tax liability or maximize your refund. Below, we take a closer look at some of the taxes you can claim back;


Generally, the federal government, the majority of state governments, and numerous local governments in the United States all levy taxes on personal income. The structure of the federal income tax is progressive, which means that the rate of tax grows when the taxpayer’s income does as well. There is a 10% to 37% range for the marginal tax rate.

Meanwhile, the income tax calculator is a straightforward online tool that serves several purposes. And with only a few clicks, you can get the estimation of your taxable income and taxes that will be due.

Income Tax FAQs

Can I decide not to file an income tax ?

Intentionally avoiding paying income taxes is, in most cases, a criminal offense. Tax evasion is a crime that can result from such behavior. By definition, tax evasion occurs when an individual wilfully engages in conduct designed to cause financial loss to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) by way of a failure to remit income tax.

Is it true that everyone must pay income tax?

Generally, tax returns are optional for some people. But, filing tax returns, on the other hand, is obligatory depending on four variables: your income, filing status, age, and exceptional circumstances.

Who is exempt from paying income tax?

People who are the primary breadwinners in their households and make less than $18,800 per year (if they are under 65) or less than $20,500 per year (if they are 65 or older) do not have to pay the tax. Likewise, if you are unmarried, over 65, and make less than $14,250 in gross income, you are exempt from paying federal income taxes.

  1. TAXABLE INCOME: Definition, Examples & Calculations
  2. NET PAY: How to Calculate Your Net Pay
  3. TAX LIABILITY: Definition and How It Works
  4. How To Calculate The Net Pay: Simple Guide


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