POULTRY FARMING BUSINESS: Baby-steps to Setup a Cost-effective Business in Nigeria

Poultry farming business
Poultry farming business

Poultry Farming Business

Poultry farming business is a broad industry with so many areas to farm. Poultry farming is the rearing of different domestic birds for commercial purpose. This commercial purpose could be meat, eggs and feathers production.


Poultry farming has been in operation for decades and over the years it has evolved ushering easy methods of farming and it’s one of the fastest growing profitable business industry.

Benefits of Poultry farming Business

  • There many benefits from poultry farming business one of which is you can start with very little capital that is because many poultry birds like chicken are not expensive to start rear.
  • Another great benefit of poultry farming business is you don’t need a gigantic space to start off, your backyard or clutters of cage can work for a start, it is also advisable to start small and watch the business grow over time, and this will help you understand the roles of this business.
  • You don’t need to invest in high maintenance when it comes to poultry farming, for example a big structure and in a short space of time poultry business will turn in profit, birds like Chicken take a short period to mature for sales, what is more important is a clean environment, proper hygiene and regular vaccination will help you minimize diseases. The profits will keeps rolling in and with proper planning the business can grow exponentially.
  • Not many poultry business requires government license or approval but getting the require license and permits from the necessary authority is not so difficult.
  • Poultry farm products are high in demands, egg and boiler chickens are high in demand globally due their nutritional value.
  • They don’t need much marketing most especially chicken and egg they sell themselves.
  • Poultry farming businesses are always in need of workers and they have consistently created employment opportunities for people in the labor market.
  • Many banks approve loans for poultry farming business due to its profitability.

Requirements for Poultry Farming

Every poultry farm have their basic requirements that will keeps in the birds in a good condition and also safe guard the poultry farm produce.

  • Space

The number and type of bird you intend to grow will determine the space you will get. If you are going for layers Hens birds you will have to calculate the number of birds to determine the cage cubes or else you intend for a clutters space which leaves some birds vulnerable, giving room for diseases and cannibalism.

It is cost effect when you cage them for commercial laying purpose.

  •  Ventilation

In choosing a space it is deal there should be cross ventilation at the bird’s level or an open roof. The disadvantage of open roof is rain. Heats have a significant stressful effect of the bird which can lead to death. A ground cover can help to reduce reflected heat.

  • Lighting

Hen layers would lay more and be active if their space is a well-lighted at all times. A dark space can cause lethargic and also the birds can become unproductive.

  • Water

Birds need plenty of this to survive and ideally it is important to fill their straws as often as it goes dry. As water is to fish so is water to birds.  For layers they need constant water to function and lay properly. Lastly, the water should be clean, more often some farmers dish out any water to their bird this can possess health challenges later on.

  • Building construction

For security against thief’s, for a conducive weather and from predators like snakes, rats and mongooses, every poultry needs to be secured hence the need for a proper structure plan that would keep the birds safe when they are little to when they grow up.


The walls and roofs don’t need to be built from expensive materials it can be made from bamboo slats, mud, stalks, wooden slats, palm fronds or sorghum, however the walls should be clean often and changed when climates begin to affects it.

  • Nest

If you should settle for nest laying, one nest should be provider for every 5 birds so as to avoid competition.

  • Feeders

No matter the system you choose birds need water and food constantly most especially laying hens.  A good feeder should have a good height/depth and should also be able to withstand constant cleaning and be strong and stable to avoiding been knocked over.

Poultry Farming Techniques

There are different types of techniques to poultry farming that will lead to maximum result

  1. In the Intensive poultry farming, this technique of farming save space, feed, labor and lots more this will translate to an increase in production but it has to be under strict supervision by the farmer to ensure the birds are healthy and the eggs are of good quality, for the intensive technique exposes birds disease.
  • Layer poultry farming techniques the farmers keeps their commercial egg layers for 12 months some more but they eventually sell their meat after a period of time.
  • The free range farming where the farmers allow the birds to roam in a wide space during the day and at night they cage them, the essence is for them to do some scratching, foraging, exercise and pecking.  
  • The organic techniques the birds are feed with low stock density, they use synthetic yolk colorants, water and feed. They have some restrictions in their routine and feeding, they can’t keep more than 1000 birds in a hector and max 2000 in each house.
  • A situation whereby cows and hens are reared together is called a yarding technique. A fence is built and all the birds and cow are allowed to roam in an open space.
  • The Battery is the most common technique in hen poultry farming, two to three hen are placed in a cage and the wall of the cage are built with mesh and the floor is made of slop  the egg rolls out and fasces drops down on the open floor. The benefits of this techniques are more, first its easy to care for the birds, easy to collect eggs, less feed for maximum egg production, birds suffer less, low cost and accommodates more in a smaller space.

The battery cage has an updated version known as the furnish cage.

  • Boilers Poultry Farming there are 2 methods that can be used for commercial boiler poultry farming, the Modern techniques which when used the boilers can be sold for consumption in 5 to 6 weeks, while the Indoors techniques this type are well equipped with automated system that delivers the food and water to the birds. Their structure are well aired and its design with heaters and coolers. Note that their house must be dried and cleaned always.

Introduction to Poultry Farming Business Proposal

  1. Poultry foods are high and birds consume a lot for them to be productive. The market has been saturated with adulterated feeds which affects the output of the birds.
  2. Disease and infection can’t be prevented when the environment is dirty and birds are very sensitive, as a farmer it imperative that the environment is constantly clean as bird react quickly to change.
  3. The poultry industry is constantly challenged with non-availability of vaccines or they become too expenses that farmers can’t afford to buy it.
  4. The first thing you need to bear in mind is the cost of  running the poultry business until you begin to make profits, the cost of purchasing equipment’s, labor healthcare, birds etc. are not cheap.
  5. In many countries their government do not support farmers with soft loans or make the system favorable for farmers. 
  6. Pests such as rodent, ants and predators like snake can cause serious damages if measures are not put in place to minimize their intrusion.
  7.  The work is tedious and the pay back takes a longer time.

How to Start Poultry Farming In Nigeria

Poultry farming in Nigeria is high in profit but very delicate and the consumption of white meat which is healthier than red meat is on the increase, also eggs are constantly in demand due to its protein nature and it’s the cheapest protein so far.

If you are passionate about livestock, you are looking for a retirement plan, or you are looking for a new lucrative business that with potential to bring in good profits and you are thinking about Poultry farming, then you are on the right track.

Below is a step by step introduction to Poultry Farming Business Proposal and bear in mind that Nigeria has a huge market for poultry products.

  1. There are many areas to pick from so start by choosing a niche, a lot of people think poultry farming is rearing of boilers and laying of eggs. There are many areas to choose from which includes boilers for meat production, layers for egg production, hatchery, feed production, etc.
  2. One very important factor is the type of bird you will grow in your farm. There are many types of birds, for example turkey, chicken (Layers or Boilers), Guinea fowl, duck, quail, etc.
  3. Your investment capital is going to be dependent on the size of poultry and the type of birds you intend to rear. You could invest as much as $600 to $700 for a small poultry you intend to start behind your home.
  4. Location is key to the profitability and success of a poultry farm business and it should be sited a little away from residential areas especially if it’s a commercial poultry. A poultry location should be location not too far from the reach of customers and suppliers.
  5. Building Structure will play a huge role in the productivity of the birds. There are three housing system for poultry farming business, the extensive system, the semi extensive system and the intensive system.
  6. Having the right equipment’s/appliances will make the poultry farming a lot easier and there is a long list to put in place. Some of which includes the feeders, drinkers, lighting, waste disposal, heat, cooler storage unit, crate etc.
  7. It is said that 70% of your expenses goes into feeding of the bird, feeding is a crucial part of their survival, you will need lots of research to figure out which method of feeding can your finances sustain. There are two ways to consider, produce your own feeds or buy already from a manufacturer.
  8.  Labor is a fundamental section of poultry and it’s advisable to employ workers who have experience in the field, also the size of your poultry will determine how many workers you will need to employ.
  9.  Book Keeping/Accounting are very important, there is need to keep track of expenses, productivity, performance etc. this will help you understand the business better and study the profit margin.
  10. Vaccination is a vital part to the survival of the birds, regular vaccinations will keep the birds in good health and prevent loss.
  11. Even though poultry produce are essential commodity they also need to be marketed, having a marketing plan will sell your produce faster and bring in profit returns, while also floating your brand effectively. 

ALSO READ… POULTRY BUSINESS: Beginners’ Guide to Launch a Lucrative Poultry Business

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