Balance of Trade (BOT): Definition, Components, and Calculations

Balance-of-Trade

What is the Balance of Trade?

The Balance of Trade (BoT) is the difference between the total value of exports and the total value of imports in a given period. It is also known as trade balance, commercial balance, or net exports (NX).


Balance of Trade is to be paid as a measure of the value of goods and services locally at outsourcing (exportation) plus that of the products being imported (imported) over the course of the period. Consequently, the BoT is considered as the main economic indicator of international commercial activities of payment and an important parameter for evaluating economic consumption.

While the total value of exports is superior to all imports, the Balance of Trade is positive and has commercial excellence. An excellent commercial sign that pays a profit in international commerce. The government can use the additional budget to increase local investments to improve the level of living or foreign investments to create new sources of return for the country.

While the total value of exports is lower than that of imports, the Balance of Trade is negative and has a commercial deficit. A commercial deficit that pays less than it does not increase on the world stage. Consequently, the government shall pour a counter-meter in place of new taxes or print other payments or international monetary organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to cover the budget slopes.


BoT is the largest part of the balance of payments (BoP), which is the balance of international financial activities of a country. It consists of a current account (international commercial transactions), which includes BoT, and a capital account (international investment transactions).

BoP is the sum of all incoming and outgoing transactions between the economic entities of a payroll and the rest of the world. In theory, the two components constantly balance and produce a balance of zero-sum payments. However, the different economic policies and fluctuations of the change rates driven by the discharges.

Components of Balance of Trade


Economic products including in the calculation of Balance of Trade are classified in goods or services and their prices have a direct influence on the values ​​of export and import.

Goods are tangible materials produced locally, providing nutrition and energy supplies.

Services are based on human interactions and implicitly taking a bite or taking away the responsibility of a piece. The port of the services can be used for diversion and training at the same time and place.

The prices of goods and services depend initially on production coats such as primary materials, storage, transport and personal dispensers. For example, ground fluctuations occur at the manufacturers of petrol products to adjust their prices to reflect changes.


The productive profit margin of the manufacturer is augmented as a function of local off / demand ratio. The volumes of supply and demand vary depending on the companies and are heavily affected by the economic and fiscal conditions that lead to inflation and taxes.

External demand is the final determinant of prices. As long as the foreign currency is higher than the local currency, the companies naturally prefer to export their products and realize the most elevated benefits. Consequently, the export routes are continuously increasing, which are retrospectively feasible for the foreign accelerators.

On the other hand, an industry with an exquisite demand encourages companies to import products, preferably to pay at low prices and increase the total value of imports. In other words, the nominal prices on the internal margins increase and reduce the value of the exports.

How to Calculate Balance of Trade?

In order to compare imports and exports, Balance of Trade with evidence of the effectiveness of international commercial activities of a country. The BoT formula is as follows:

TB (Balance of Trade) = X (total value of exports) – M (total value of imports)

The calculation can vary according to pay. For example, the main ratio of the Balance of Trade of the euro area to France does not match the prices and does not account for the services. The French Balance of Trade of services is calculated separately and the two categories are regrouped in a different report.

How the Balance of Trade Affects the Economy?

The Balance of Trade reveals that it generates additional resources beyond its local capacity at the end of the value. As an important indicator of economic growth potential and constituting an important part of gross domestic product (GDP), governance and central banks are closely monitoring BOT figures to augment their policies. Commercial excellence is generally the PIB, although there is a commercial deficit of capacity.

Beneath the breakdown of wages indicating a positive commercial balance, an excess or a deficit in the index without necessarily a force or an economic failure. BOT figures must be interpreted in the context of current economic conditions, economic policies, and the economic cycles of the country.

Export- and Demand-led Growth Strategies

During a period of economic recession, the government can adopt and stimulate the Greek economy with a crop-driven export strategy. The objective is to think of the outsourced resources being paid by increasing the volume of the outlets to the outsider. Consequently, an excellent commercial deficit is considered as a result of a commercial deficit and a political deficit.

However, if the economy is expanding, an economic contraction policy will be used to keep inflation rates at bay with demand-driven demand. The importation of more foreign goods and services could favor competition by prices in the national economy. Consequently, a commercial deficit leads to a natural consensus, which is an exceptional commercial signifier of inefficient import activities.

Trade wars

If health and economic efficiency are important, other factors will flow out of their respective economic policies. Commercial warfare between the largest consumer and the largest producer of the world, the United States and China, is a good example.

United States. a short-lived trade deficit with China, amounting to $ 375 billion in 2018. As a result, President Donald Trump has accused China of violating international commercial practices with the United States by manipulating foreign exchange, the volume of owned intellectually and with an accent resting on the march.

China responds to accusations by suggesting that Trump is trying to impose economic power on China. Consequently, the commercial warfare proceeds only to the United States deciding to apply a tariff of 25% on various Chinese products and also rapidly increasing it to the extent that the advantage of double standards being imposed on Chinese imports.

Considering that the United States adopts a cross-cutting strategy driven by demand, common and diffuse imports are a contradiction to economic policy. Measuring that import figures are declining, the US commercial deficit remains constant and falls within the value of the US dollar in relation to other currencies.

Balance of Trade as an economic indicator

Balance of Trade is a retarded economic indicator and is not retrospective. A positive BoT digit indicating that the total value of exports increases augmented that imports during the reference period, even as a negative commercial balance ratio suggests the opposite. Several factors that influence the commercial balance:

  • Principal national industries and their internal conditions such as local supply/demand
  • Coats of primary materials and intermediate goods
  • Fluctuations in change rates
  • Commercial policies, taxes, regulations, and restrictions
  • International relations with the main commercial partners
  • Personalized controls

In financial transactions, the BoT is used as an economic indicator of the economic viability of payroll and its proximity to economic policy objectives. Commodities following BoT publications to evaluate the performance of international trade pay and reduce the potential for the crop is to be realized and expanded. It is considered a good predictor of PIB and government budgetary policy futures.

How to use the Balance of Trade reports?

Balance of Trade is an important part of the actuality. The effect of the ratio on the value of currency differs from economic policies and sentiment. An increase in commercial output in an economy driven by exports exhibits a positive effect on the economy, while for an economy driven by demand, there is a growing increase in the commercial deficit.

READ ALSO: BACKTESTING TRADING: Definition, How It Works and Examples

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