From cutting-edge startups to global giants, all companies must keep an eye on their profitability. If you don’t, your cash flow may run out and your business may run into trouble.
There is a wide range of metrics that are used to measure profitability, but earnings before interest and taxes are probably the most common. In this article, you will find out everything you need to know about EBT, including calculating earnings before interest and taxes.
What is earnings before tax (EBT)?
Earnings Before Tax (EBT) measures the financial performance of a business. It is a calculation of the earnings of a company before taxes. The calculation is based on income fewer expenses without taxes. EBT is an item on a company’s profit and loss account. Shows a company’s profit with the cost of goods sold (COGS), interest, depreciation, general administrative expenses, and other operating expenses deducted from gross sales.
How to get earnings before taxes
Finding out your company’s pre-tax income is pretty easy. Net income before taxes begins with your income for the reporting period, regardless of whether it is a month, a quarter, or a year. Then subtract business expenses that are not taxes. This gives you your company’s EBT or earnings before taxes.
Gross income is defined as the money you earn during a reporting period. The definition of net income is the amount of money you earn after expenses are deducted. If you don’t run your business for cash, income and expenses include money you owe, not just what you pay or get paid.
For example, let’s say you received $ 240,000 this month but completed jobs worth an additional $ 60,000. His gross monthly income is $ 300,000. If you write $ 30,000 in checks to vendors and you have another $ 10,000 in unpaid bills, your expense will be $ 40,000. The net income formula says your net is $ 260,000.
Income tax expenses
Calculating income tax expense is much easier than calculating income before taxes. An experienced accountant knows many ways to reduce a business tax, sometimes to the point of accomplishing nothing. A common practice in preparing income statements is to use historical data.
For example, suppose your EBT is $ 875,000. Your tax expense should be roughly the same as the last time you had this amount of net income unless something material like the tax law has changed. Declares the expected tax burden as an item in the income statement.
The Income Statement
The income statement calculates your net income for the reporting period based on the net income formula. There are two main approaches: single pass and multiple passes. The difference is how they treat profits and losses that are not part of their regular business.
Single or multiple steps?
For a single-level income statement, add up all your income and earnings, and then add your expenses and losses. Subtract the negative from the positive and you get your net income. The last line above the entry for your tax expense gives you your income before taxes.
A multi-level profit and loss account is more complex:
- First, subtract the cost of goods sold from your sales income to get the gross profit.
- Then subtract operating expenses like office supplies and advertising and sales commissions to maintain your bottom line.
- The next section lists non-operating income and expenses, p. Eg B. Investment earnings, interest expense, and litigation losses. When you separate them, you can more easily see how much revenue your operation, the core of your business, has.
- Add the sum of the operating and non-operating income to obtain the net income for the period.
- By simply finishing your calculations before including income tax expense, you will get your net income before taxes.
Profit Before Tax Formula
There are three formulas that can be used to calculate Earnings Before Tax (EBT):
EBT = Sales Revenue – COGS – SG&A – Depreciation and Amortization
EBT = EBIT – Interest Expense
and, EBT = Net Income + Taxes
EBT vs EBIT vs EBITDA
In the world of financial analysis, EBT, EBIT, and EBITDA are often referred to. It’s important to understand the difference between the three metrics, as well as when and why you would consider each of them.
The profit before tax is used to analyze the profitability of a company without the impact of its tax system. This makes companies from different states or countries more comparable, as tax rates can differ significantly across borders. Analysts often prefer to add taxes to net income so that they can compare the apple-to-apple earnings performance of a wide range of companies.
Earnings Before Taxes, Interest and Depreciation
Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) are also popular with analysts because they offer an additional level of comparability, namely increased interest expense. While EBT is normalized for taxes, EBIT is normalized for both taxes and interest expense. This means that the capital structure of the company does not affect the evaluation of its profitability.
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) have the most additions and are therefore the furthest from the net result of the three key figures. EBITDA also adds depreciation as it is not a cash expense and therefore has no impact on a company’s cash flow. For more information on EBITDA and cash flow, check out our Ultimate Cash Flow Guide.
EBIT versus EBITDA
There are numerous metrics that you can use to analyze the profitability of a business. Besides EBIT, EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) is another widely used formula. In addition to interest and taxes, depreciation and amortization are removed from the EBITDA equation. This helps companies get a better idea of the profitability of their operating performance.
When calculating the profitability of companies, EBIT and EBITDA often show completely different results. This is because depreciation can make a significant contribution to a company’s bottom line. Since depreciation is not reported in EBITDA, it can lead to a skewed understanding of profitability for companies with a large number of property, plant, and equipment (as these companies are likely to have significant depreciation costs).
Why EBIT is Important to your company
EBIT gives you a measure of the operating profitability of your company. Since costs associated with taxes and interest are not taken into account, EBIT ignores variables such as capital structure and tax burden. There are a few key areas where EBIT is particularly useful:
- Taxes – This is especially helpful for investors comparing different companies with different tax obligations. For example, a company that recently received a tax exemption appears to be more profitable than one that did not. However, this may not be the case. Measuring earnings before interest and taxes can help clarify the situation.
- Debt – EBIT can be very useful when analyzing companies in capital-intensive industries. These types of businesses can have numerous properties, plants, and equipment (usually financed with debt), which means that they have high-interest expenses. However, since these fixed assets are important for long-term growth, it helps to have a profitability measure that eliminates debt and the costs associated with it.
EBT as a comparison tool
EBT is crucial as it eliminates the impact of taxes when comparing companies. While American businesses face the same tax rates at the federal level, they face different tax rates at the state level. Because companies in different states may pay different tax rates, EBT allows investors to compare the profitability of similar companies in different tax jurisdictions. EBT is used to calculate key performance indicators.
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What Is INCOME BOND: Definition and Benefits
Maybe you’re an investor and seeks to know what an income bond is but, don’t know who to ask. Good thing you’re here. This article will give you all the details you need to know about income bonds including the basic tips, restructuring and it benefits the issuer.
What Is an Income Bond?
An income bond is a type of debt guarantee in which the investor promises to pay only the face value of the bond and coupon payments are paid only if the issuing company has sufficient profits to pay the coupon payment. In the context of corporate bankruptcy, an adjustment bond is a type of income bond.
An income bond is a bond that promises only the repayment of capital and does not guarantee any interest rate or coupon. Instead, interest is paid to creditors as income flows to the issuer as specified in the banknote specification.
Lease bonds are often issued during a corporate debt restructuring, for example, after the deposit of Chapter 11 in bankruptcy.
A traditional corporate bond is one that makes regular interest payments to bondholders and, upon maturity, repays the principal investment.
Bond investors expect to receive the reported coupon payments periodically and are exposed to default risk if the company faces solvency problems and is unable to meet its debt obligations.
Bond issuers that have a high level of default are generally given low creditworthiness by a bond rating agency to reflect that their securities issues have a high level of risk. Investors who buy these high-risk bonds also require a high level of return to compensate them for lending their funds to the issue
However, there are a number of cases where the guarantor does not guarantee a coupon payment. The face value in maturity is guaranteed to be paid, but interest payments will only be paid based on the issuer’s income over a period of time.
The issuer is responsible for paying coupon payments only when he has income in his financial statements, which makes such issues profitable for the issuing company that is trying to raise the capital needed to grow or develop its business. activity.
Interest payments on income securities, therefore, are not adjusted but vary depending on the particular level of income that the company considers to be sufficient. Failure to pay interest does not result in a loss as would be the case with traditional securities.
Debt Restructuring and Income Bonds
Revenue securities are a rare financial instrument that generally has a corporate purpose similar to that of preferred shares. However, it is different from the preferred shares in the late dividend payment and the preferred shareholders are found in the following periods until they are paid. Providers are not required to pay or receive any unpaid interest on income guarantee at any later time.
Revenue bonds can be arranged so that unpaid interest payments are increased and matured during the maturity of the bond issue, but this is not usually the case; therefore, it can be an important tool in helping an organization to avoid bankruptcy during a financial crisis or reorganization.
Lease bonds are often issued by companies with a problem in trying to get money quickly to go bankrupt or by bankrupt companies in restructuring programs that seek to maintain their operations while bankrupt. In order to attract investors, the agency would be willing to pay a higher bond rate than the average market rate.
In the case of a Chapter 11 bankruptcy resolution, a business may issue revenue bonds, known as restructuring bonds, as part of a company’s debt restructuring to help the business cope with its financial difficulties.
The terms of such collateral often include the clause that when a business generates good revenue, it must pay interest. If the income is negative, no interest payments are due.
Revenue bonds look similar to the shares you prefer. If no dividend is paid on preferential shares in a given year because of insufficient income, dividends are collected for that year and paid the following year if there is sufficient income.
This is not the case with income bonds, and therefore is different from each other. In the end, although it involves the creation of an instrument, it resembles an agreement between two parties and can be arranged according to the wishes of both parties.
How Does Income Bond benefit the Issuer?
This type of bond works very well in times of financial crisis or financial health of a company, as long as investors believe in signing up. The direct benefit of this guarantee is that it can prevent the company from going bankrupt.
NSI Income Bond
NSandI is a UK-based savings organization dedicated to raising low-cost government funding from the public. Revenue bonds are one of the many NSI savings products offered to the public.
Who can open an Income Bonds account
NSI Income Bonds are available to an individual aged 16 and over. You can create a Revenue Assurance account for yourself or someone else as a joint venture Account.
You can also open one as a deposit for sponsors (also as a company) Sponsors), whether alone or in partnership with other sponsors. Beneficiaries of Investments must be made to individuals.
Any company that had an Revenue Guarantee Account up to and including January 1, 1990
keep holding and investing in an account.
You can open as many Revenue Assurance accounts as you wish, but there is a hold limit
(See “How much can you keep?”).
How to open an Income Bonds account
When you open an account, you can request:
• Online or by phone with your UK payment card
• By post using a personal cheque drawn on your UK bank or building society
account, or a banker’s draft or building society branch cheque.
If you are an attorney or an agent asking for an account on behalf of someone else, you are
You must apply by post if your authority is not yet registered with us. (Please note
General terms and conditions – “Application as an attorney or representative or trustee”.)
What Is BUSINESS CYCLE?- Definition, Internal and External Causes
What is Business Cycle?
A business cycle is a cycle of fluctuations in the gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term natural growth rate.
From a conceptual point of view, the business cycle is the upward and downward movement of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and refers to the time of expansions and contractions in the level of economic activity (trade fluctuations) around a growth trend of long term.
Business Cycle Stages
In the diagram above, the straight line in the middle is the constant growth line. The business cycle moves around the line. Below is a more detailed description of each phase of the business cycle:
The first phase of the business cycle is expansion. During this phase, positive economic indicators such as employment, income, production, wages, profits, demand and supply of goods and services increase. Debtors tend to pay their debts on time, the speed of the money supply is high, and investments are high. This process will continue as long as economic conditions are favorable for expansion.
The economy then reaches a saturation point or climax, which is the second stage of the business cycle. Maximum growth limit is reached. Economic indicators have stopped growing and are at their highest level. Prices are at their peak. This phase marks the turning point in the trend of economic growth. Consumers tend to restructure their budgets at this point.
The recession is the stage that follows the peak phase. The demand for goods and services begins to decline rapidly and steadily in this phase. Producers do not notice the drop in demand immediately and continue to produce, leading to an oversupply in the market. Prices tend to go down. As a result, all positive economic indicators, such as income, production, wages, etc., start to fall.
Unemployment increases accordingly. Economic growth continues to decline, and since it is below the constant growth line, the stage is called a depression.
In the depression phase, the economic growth rate turns negative. There is a further decline until factor prices, as well as the demand and supply of goods and services, reach their lowest point. The economy finally bottomed out. It is the negative saturation point of an economy. National income and expenditures are largely depleted.
After this phase, the economy is in a recovery phase. At this stage there is a trend reversal and the economy begins to recover from the negative growth rate. Demand starts to rise due to lower prices and, consequently, so does supply. The economy develops a positive attitude towards investment and employment, and increases production.
Employment is starting to rise and due to accumulated cash balances with bankers, loans are also showing positive signs. In this phase, depreciated capital is replaced by producers, which leads to new investments in the production process.
The recovery will continue until the economy returns to sustained growth levels. Complete a full boom and bust business cycle. The extreme points are the high point and the low point.
Who measures the business cycle?
The National Bureau of Economic Research uses quarterly GDP growth rates to determine the phases of the business cycle and also uses monthly economic indicators such as employment, real personal income, industrial production, and retail sales. It takes time to analyze this data, so the NBER will not inform you of the phase until it has started.8 You can check the indicators yourself to see where we are in the business cycle.
Who manages the economic cycle?
The government manages the business cycle. Lawmakers use fiscal policy to influence the economy. They use expansionary fiscal policies if they want to end a recession, and they should use contractionary fiscal policies to prevent the economy from overheating. However, this rarely happens because they are thrown out of office when taxes are raised or popular shows cut.
The central bank of the nation uses monetary policy. It cuts interest rates to end a contraction or bottom out called expansionary monetary policy. The central bank raises interest rates to manage an expansion so that it does not peak. That is a contractionary monetary policy
Causes of business cycles
The cyclical pattern of changes in the economy is caused by many factors combined. There are internal factors within the economy that can cause these changes. And there are also external factors that can lead to an economy boom or bust. Let’s take a look at all the causes of business cycles.
Internal causes of business cycles
These endogenous factors can cause changes in the stages of the business and the economy in general. Let’s take a look at the internal causes of business cycles.
1] Changes in demand
Keynes economists believe that a change in demand causes a change in economic activity. When demand increases in an economy, companies produce more goods to meet the demand.
There is more production, more employment, more income and higher profits. This will lead to an economic boom. However, excessive demand can also lead to inflation.
On the other hand, when demand falls, so does economic activity. This can lead to bankruptcy which, if held for an extended period of time, can even lead to a downturn in the economy.
2] investment fluctuations
Fluctuations in investment, such as fluctuations in demand, are one of the main causes of business cycles. Investments will fluctuate based on many factors, such as the economy’s interest rate, business interests, profit expectations, etc.
An increase in investment will lead to an increase in economic activity and will lead to expansion. A decrease in investment has the opposite effect and can cause a bottom or even a depression. Apply Business ethics.
3] Macroeconomic policy
The monetary and economic policies of a nation will also lead to changes in the phases of an economic cycle. So when monetary policy tries to expand economic activity by encouraging investment, the economy will skyrocket. On the other hand, if taxes or interest rates go up, there will be a slowdown or recession in the economy.
4] Money supply
There is another belief that business cycles are purely monetary phenomena. So changes in the money supply will cause business cycles. An increase in money on the market will lead to growth and expansion.
However, too much money can also cause adverse inflation. And the decrease in the money supply will cause a recession in the economy. Learn financial management!
External causes of business cycles
In times of war and unrest, economic resources are used to make special goods such as weapons, weapons, and other similar war goods. The focus is shifting from consumer goods and capital goods. This will lead to a decrease in income, employment and economic activity. Then the economy will experience a wartime recession.
And later, after the war, the focus will be on rebuilding. It is necessary to rebuild the infrastructure (houses, roads, bridges, etc.). This will help the economy recover if progress is made. Economic activity will increase as effective demand increases.
2] technological shocks
New and exciting technology is always a boom for business. New technologies mean new investments, more jobs and, as a result, higher income and profits. For example, the invention of the modern cell phone was the reason for a huge boom in the telecommunications industry.
3] Natural factors
Natural disasters such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, etc. they can damage crops and seriously damage the agricultural sector. Food shortages will lead to higher prices and high inflation. Capital goods can also experience a decline in demand.
4] population growth
If population growth gets out of control, it could be a problem for the economy. Basically, the total savings of an economy decrease when population growth is greater than economic growth. Then investment will also fall and the economy will experience depression or slowdown.
To get a full understanding of the business cycle, you have to know what business is, the concepts and characteristics
What Is Below-the-Line Advertising: Definitions, Examples, Marketing Ideas
Marketing has always been about not putting your eggs in one basket. Combining is what it’s all about, and finding multiple channels to drive engagement has always been successful. Let’s explore Below-the-Line Advertising; A strategy that lets you monitor results that is safer and can justify the marketing spend.
What Is Below-the-Line Advertising?
Below-the-Line Advertising is a strategy in which products are advertised in media other than radio, television, poster, print, and film formats. The main below the line types of advertising systems include direct mail campaigns, social media marketing, trade shows, catalogs, and targeted search engine marketing. Below the line advertising methods tend to be cheaper and more targeted than bottom-line strategies.
Examples of Below-the-Line Advertising
Targeted online marketing
Businesses can target specific demographics with their advertising campaigns, such as: B. the age of a consumer or the industry of a company. For example, LinkedIn allows marketers to target specific people with sidebar ads based on their job or the groups they belong to on the site.
Corporations are still in direct mail, especially older populations who are not online as often as younger generations. Catalogs and postcards remain popular and effective marketing tools.
Trade fairs and presentations
Companies typically present their products and services through local chambers of commerce. Banks organize mortgage seminars to answer questions about mortgages, interest rates, and home affordability, and to attract new loan customers.
Of course, there isn’t a perfect marketing tool that works every time. Instead, companies typically subscribe to multiple strategies. For example, a company may send out direct mail flyers for an upcoming event that the company is hosting at the local convention center.
Below-the-Line Advertising BTL marketing ideas
Photo booths for events make noise in this current environment with their presence at every event. To promote any event, be it corporate or personal photo booths, it was the right choice. A bit of digitization in photo booths for social bees easily gets the public’s attention. It allows them to enjoy themselves while getting all of the social attention. Photo booths allow attendees to click on an event by following the instructions on the touchscreen. Allows the user to add some filters and section layouts.
Uploading a picture with an event hashtag will instantly give you the impression of your picture while your event is trending on social platforms. Here is a comprehensive guide to all types of photo booths.
Tweets Cafe or Social Cafe
Who doesn’t like surprise gifts? I don’t think anyone will say no to him. Tweet Cafe or Social Cafe can turn your event into a trendsetter on social media platforms and at the same time focus your brand.
It’s a perfect way to attract more audiences by offering surprise gifts. With a simple tweet with an event hashtag and a specific box number, your brand campaign will reach many active users and encourage them to be a part of it. This leads to greater brand reach without geographical boundaries.
The tweet café has its importance in experimental marketing solutions that lead a brand campaign on social platforms to success.
The social mosaic wall is one of the most effective ways to organize your event on social media. Smartphones always stay at the crime scene. Your event attendees tend to take pictures throughout an event. All of the photos taken at an event can be viewed on a photo mosaic wall that summarizes the entire event for attendees if they missed something.
You can enjoy an event digital album without asking for the photos. Just follow the live updates or use event hashtags to collect pictures of your event on social media platforms.
The 3D hologram fan ensures fun and excitement. A 3D hologram can be displayed without 3D glasses. An event that uses holographic 3D as a BTL activity becomes the talk of the town in no time, while also trending other branded events to follow suit. Holographic 3D is a unique experimental technology solution that allows brands to highlight their product in the most innovative way and allow event attendees to click on it. Make your event scream out loud with your remarkable presence and innovative approach to grabbing audience attention.
Advantages of Below-the-line advertising
Direct contact between customers and brands
BTL’s activities enable direct communication between brands and customers. Direct communication helps customers to understand the product better and to combine both on a personal level. It helps brands understand buying patterns and customer behavior. BTL marketing includes brand activation, mall activation, email marketing, telemarketing, exhibitions, and more.
BTL activities help you achieve your goal and reach your target audience at the same time. BTL activations can lead to even more brand loyalty. Today’s marketers are using interactive technology solutions to leverage their brands. Instagram Hashtag Printers, Social 360 Photo Booth, Tweet Cafe, Photo, and GIF Booths are some of the common practices used by brand activation agencies.
Build brand awareness
BTL activities help marketers spread brand awareness. Help people connect with the brand and explain the benefits of a brand. BTL activations help attract more customers while increasing a brand’s leads. Innovative and creative BTL activities are the preferred marketing strategy for marketers in today’s scenario as it creates a niche for a brand. It helps the brand to highlight its presence in the market.
Reach your target audience
BTL activations help you reach your target audience. When you have your desired goal, you can plan accordingly. Whether you choose to activate a mall, branding, or hashtag printer, you need to know your target audience. BTL activities help you reach the right consumer.
Highlights your brand
BTL’s innovative activities help your brand stay one step ahead of the competition. Millions of brands have sprung up and television is flooded with lots of advertisements. Some brands get lost in the clutter and their message doesn’t get to the audience.
BTL activities offer brands the opportunity to present their products to the target group. It gives brands the platform to clearly communicate their marketing message to their audience. BTL activities help the brand stand out without getting lost in the clutter.
Develop brand credibility
BTL’s activities have increased since experimental marketing solutions came into play. BTL activities offer immediate results and create a positive brand image. It gives the brand the opportunity to present their products to their target audience, which leads to the sale of the product. Helps build a customer-brand relationship. A positive brand image leads to increased sales.
Create an impact on the audience
Compared to traditional marketing measures, BTL activities help to influence the audience more. BTL activities make the brand unforgettable and increase the souvenir value. BTL activities involve the audience and give them the opportunity to interact. Be it a BTL activity, be it activating a mall or exhibitions, or the latest experimental marketing solutions like the hashtag printer or the photobox, it helps the brand to engage the audience while creating a positive and powerful impact on them . .
Let the audience feel your product
You must have found free samples of the products when you visit the market. Gathering and generating evidence is one of the many forms of BTL activities. Sampling is one of the most effective measures in BTL marketing as it introduces your brand to the audience. It gives them an idea of the product, which leads to repeated sales of the product.
Sampling allows customers to touch and feel the product. It is an effective marketing measure to familiarize the consumer with the products. When consumers become familiar with the product, they receive quality assurance that can lead to brand loyalty and help the brand in the long term.
Above-the-line Advertising Vs Below-the-Line Advertising
Above the line, advertising is designed to reach a mass audience. The epitome of BTL marketing is a Super Bowl television advertisement that costs millions of dollars for just seconds of airtime but instantly reaches tens of millions of consumers worldwide. Statistically, a significant percentage of these viewers may not be typical of a company’s target consumer.
In contrast, below-the-line advertising reaches fewer people but is more selective about the audience. In most cases, the bottom line is that advertisers do extensive market research to identify a target niche of buyers who are most likely to buy the products. Once the target audience is identified, below the limit advertising reaches consumers in a more personal and direct way.
A wide network is built above the line compared to below the line, using a proverbial fishing rod through direct mail, personal contacts at trade shows, or paid search engine results that are displayed when consumers enter queries.
BTL’s activities have demonstrated its importance for marketing trends and are now being used by all other brands to beat the competition.
Make your brand more visible and generate more sales through BTL activities. Accelerate your marketing game with the latest trends and ideas from BTL marketing activities with the help of an experienced brand activation agency. It’s time to reach out to your untapped audience in the most innovative way possible.
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