Non-Performing Loans: How to fix and avoid them (+ Detailed Guide)

Non-Performing Loans

So many people require loans for countless reasons, but the truth remains that some borrowers find it difficult to pay back. Here we will see what it means for a loan to be non-performing, the steps you take to avoid them, and fix it simultaneously.

#1. What is a Non-Performing Loan?

A Non-Performing Loan is a loan that the borrower has not paid its interest for a particular period of time. It mostly occurs when the borrower runs out of cash, as well as when the debtor encounters a situation, hence unable to pay back the principal. Non-Performing Loans are called NPLs for short and can also be identified as Non-Performing Assets.

Normally, financial institutions refer to a loan as Non-Performing if the interest is due for more than 3 months or pertaining to the specified period. Nevertheless, if the borrower makes the payment of a loan that is Non-Performing, that loan is called a re-performing loan.

#2. Types of Non-Performing Loans.

Since a Non-Performing Loan is a loan in which the borrower is in default, there are types of non-performing loans or categories to which it can be classified and the includes:

1) Bad Debt:

This is a type of non-performing loan in which case the lender no longer believes that the borrower could pay back the interest. Perhaps, the loan is due. So he writes it off.

2) Unpaid Overdue Interest:

This is when doubt comes in and the lender justifies that the borrower cannot repay the interest because is 3 months overdue.

3) Delay:

This occurs when the 3 months’ worth of interest payment is delayed due to a change in the agreement terms.

#3. Causes of Non-Performing Loans.

The NPFs is not a new thing in the investment arena and scrutinizing this fact, below are some reasons that are pertinent and leads to Non-Performing Loans:

1) High-Income Interest Rate:

An increase in the supposed interest makes some borrowers unable to pay back loans. Hence, they can’t afford it and in doing this the loans turn Non-Performing.

2) Low Gross Domestic Profit (GDP):

A decrease in the gross domestic product virtually affects every economic sector. When the total value of goods and services is minimal. The workforce needed to repay loans will be minimal as well.

3) Poor Credit Appraisal:

Before lending money to someone that credibility status (source of income, experience, repayment capacity) should be gauged. Giving loans to people that have fewer chances of paying back is an improper lending method as such causes Non-Performing Loans.

4) Inflation and Unemployment:

An increase in the price level causes NPL’s because they lend the money and it will no longer be able to purchase the needed instruments and achieve payment. Again, unemployed personnel have no source of income and can’t pay back a loan.

#4. Non-Performing Loan Ratio Analysis.

The Non-performing Loan ratio analysis also means the NPL ratio analysis and this refers to the probability of a bank(lender) getting back its loans. For example, during the COVID-19 era and in recession times, there are low possibilities that lenders would get back their interest in full within the agreeable time due to the disorder in so many activities.

How to calculate the NPL ratio.

To calculate the NPL ratio add 3 months (90 days) late loans to non-accruing loans. Then divide it by the total sum of loans in the portfolio. If a borrower had $100,000 loan, repair $40,000 but cannot pay the remaining $60,000 within 3 months, the entire $100,000 loan is termed a Non-Performing Loan.

#5. Where to Find Non-performing Loans in Financial Statements.

You record Non-Performing Loans on a bank’s balance sheet when the borrower did not pay for a specific time. Well, probably the best method is just by analyzing the numbers and also to look at the size of the allowance for loan and lease losses (ALLL) which will be shown as a credit balance reducing the number of gross loans and leases.

Read: SBA LOANS Guide: How to Apply, Eligibility (+ Free easy tips)

#6. How to reduce Non-Performing Loans.

When loan limits are at high levels it affects the bank’s lending activity. This results in a decline in credit supply. To curb this, lenders should have a sound lending policy. They must only lend to employed people and those with authentic collateral. Banks must have good data (profile) of the borrower. They should implore force and the legal services in recovering loans and signing deals. However, it is also a good move to monitor the borrower and remind him of the deadline and pending consequences.

#7. Accounting treatment for Non-Performing Loans.

The calculation of assets and liabilities will take account of NPLs. The accounting treatment for Non-Performing Loans varies and depends on the country. Some countries use the number of days overdue while others rely on qualitative norms. This includes financial status, management judgment and others hope for future payments. In foreign currencies, loans can bundle up and sell as securities. Then, the market value will vary as the interest rates change. MFSM records provision for losing losses under “other accounts payable” and memos on interest areas and expected loan losses. Some financial institutions show the full value of NPL as assets but include the expected losses amount under liabilities. Cancellation or debt forgiveness is a capital transfer between the credits and the debtor. The impairment of the loan can be expensed against current income, and the provision netted off the assets.

#8. Impact of Non-Performing Loans on Banks.

It could easily be argued that defaulting in debt is a normal part of the business rather than a catastrophic event. But, the amount of Non-Performing Loans measures the quality of bank assets. The NPL’s effect can lead to a possible bank failure. It creates barriers to further lending, destabilize the nation’s economy, and reduce profit levels.

Nonperforming Loan (NPL) vs. Reperforming Loan (RPL)

Defaulted loans are referred to as nonperforming loans. Loans that were formerly nonperforming but are now performing again are referred to as reperforming loans. The reperforming loans were previously late for at least 90 days and are now in good standing.

Reperforming loans are often those for which the borrower has filed for bankruptcy and has continued to make payments as a result of the bankruptcy agreement. In most cases, such an agreement permits the borrower to get current on their mortgage through a loan modification program.

Example of a Nonperforming Loan (NPL)

When a borrower defaults on a loan, it is referred to as a nonperforming loan. For example, John has lost his work and is unable to pay his bills. His loan has been overdue for over 90 days, and the bank has designated it as nonperforming. The loan would be placed on the bank’s nonperforming loan list.

How Banks Handle Non-Performing Loans

Non-performing loans are often regarded as bad debts because the chances of recouping the missed loan installments are slim. Having more non-performing loans on the balance sheet, on the other hand, lowers the bank’s cash flow and stock price. As a result, banks with non-performing loans on their records may pursue legal action to reclaim the money owing to them.

Lenders can take possession of assets pledged as collateral for a loan as one of several options. For example, if the borrower pledged a car as collateral, the lender will seize the car and sell it to recoup any debts owed by the borrower.

When debtors fail to meet their mortgage obligations for more than 90 days, banks may foreclose on their properties. To get rid of problematic assets from its balance sheet, the lender may sell non-performing loans to collection agencies and other investors.

Banks sell non-performing loans at steep discounts, and collection agencies try to recoup as much of the money owing as possible. In exchange for a percentage of the amount recovered, the lender can hire a collection agency to enforce the recovery of a defaulted loan.


How are non-performing loans calculated?

How to Calculate the Non-Performing Loans to Loans Ratio. The non-performing loans to loans ratio are calculated by adding 90+ day late loans (and still accruing) to nonaccrual loans and then dividing that total by the total amount of loans in the portfolio.

What is NPL coverage?

The non-performing loan coverage ratio looks at a bank‘s ability to absorb future losses. Banks understand not every loan that they lend will be paid in full, so by predicting the rate of non-performing loans, banks can be prepared to cover these future losses.

What is a healthy loan to deposit ratio?

80% to 90%What is a Good Loan to Deposit Ratio? Typically, the optimal ratio is 80% to 90%. A ratio above 100% means the bank has loaned out every dollar in deposits. It is the danger zone because it has no reserves to pay customers for demand deposits.

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  1. Hello there, I tried applying for a Covid 19 loan from the micro finance company ie NIRSAL last month and I discovered that where I am required to insert my BVN says I have a non-performing loan but actually what I could remember is I got a loan from my bank which was a kind of 50% salary loan and I have paid already.
    How do deal with this so as to avert future hindrance me accessing loan from CBN, because perhaps the message may be from them. Thanks Abubakar Sadiq Mohammed

    1. Hi Sadiq, Issues like this is common. You would have to go to your bank and make a complaint. The loan must have been cleared but still reflects on the system. They would need to clear the loan off your account. Once you make a detailed complaint, the bank would handle it accurately. Meanwhile, you can maximize grant opportunities. These are fundings you wouldn’t have to pay back for.

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