WHAT IS A JUMBO MORTGAGE? Rates and Limits In 2023

what is jumbo mortgage

One of the most significant aspects of home purchasing is determining the sort of mortgage that best meets your needs. A jumbo mortgage loan may be required to purchase the home of your dreams, or in some areas of the country, to purchase any house at all.
Here’s a guide to help you determine whether a jumbo mortgage and the rate are good for you.

What Is a Jumbo Mortgage?

A jumbo home mortgage, also known as a non-conforming loan, is any mortgage amount that exceeds the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s conforming loan limit. A jumbo mortgage is more credit risky and has a somewhat higher interest rate than other loan options because they cannot be granted by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.

The current conforming loan ceiling for a one-unit property in the contiguous United States is $510,400. (including D.C. and Puerto Rico). If you wish to buy a home for more than $510,400, your loan will be classified as jumbo.

Jumbo loan restrictions differ depending on the location of the property and the number of units on it. Jumbo loan limitations are greater in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and the US Virgin Islands.

What Is the Process of Obtaining a Jumbo Mortgage?

Jumbo loans, like conventional mortgages, are available in a variety of terms and repayment schedules, and they can be fixed-rate or adjustable-rate loans. Rocket Mortgage now offers 15 and 30-year fixed or 7-year adjustable rate jumbo loans.

Jumbo loans, on the other hand, operate differently than normal mortgages. These loans have more stringent requirements than other types of mortgages, and you must meet very particular property type, down payment, credit score, and debt-to-income ratio requirements to obtain one.

Property Classes

Because there are no government constraints on how you can use your jumbo loan, you can acquire a variety of properties. Most jumbo mortgages can be used for primary residences, vacation homes, and investment properties as long as you meet your lender’s other requirements.

Advance Payment

When compared to conforming loans, jumbo loans often have substantially greater down payment requirements. Lenders frequently request a 20% down payment on jumbo loans for single-family homes. Larger down payment may also be required for second residences and multifamily buildings. Finally, the minimum down payment is determined by the loan amount as well as your credit score.

For a single-family home worth up to $2 million, a 10.01 percent down payment is required with Rocket Mortgage’s Jumbo Smart loan. A 15% down payment is required to purchase a two-family home, also known as a duplex.

Credit Rating

When it comes to securing a jumbo mortgage, your credit score is quite important. Your credit score is a numerical assessment of your dependability as a borrower. Your credit score can range from 300 to 850, and numerous elements are considered to determine it.

The exact credit score required to qualify for a jumbo mortgage will vary depending on the lender and loan circumstances. The minimum qualification for a 30-year fixed on primary residences, vacation homes, and investment properties with a Jumbo Smart loan is a 680® median FICO score, while this can range up to 760 depending on the property type and what you’re trying to accomplish in your mortgage transaction.

A minimum credit score of 700 is required for a 15-year fixed loan or a Jumbo Smart ARM. For additional information, contact a Home Loan Expert.

Debt-to-Income Calculation (DTI)

Your debt-to-income (DTI) ratio compares the amount of money you earn to the amount of debt you have. Divide all of your mandatory minimum monthly payments by your pre-tax income to calculate your DTI ratio.

For example, if you pay $1,000 in bills each month and bring home $2,000 before taxes, your DTI ratio is 50%: $1,000 divided by $2,000.

When applying for a jumbo loan, a low DTI ratio is critical since it shows lenders that you will have the adequate cash flow to fulfill your mortgage payments. You may be able to get a jumbo loan with a greater DTI ratio if you have a larger down payment or credit score.

Why Are Jumbo Mortgages Handled Differently?

The mortgage industry works as follows: Lenders originate mortgages, which they promptly sell to mortgage investors such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac so that they can continue to make loans. However, Fannie and Freddie are only permitted to purchase mortgages that adhere to the FHFA’s guidelines.

Following the purchase of these mortgages, Fannie and Freddie pool them with other identical loans to sell to investors on the secondary mortgage market. A similar process occurs frequently with jumbo mortgages, however other investors are involved.

Conforming Mortgage vs. Jumbo Mortgage

A jumbo loan gives you more purchasing power than a conforming loan, but you’ll pay more in interest because your debt is bigger.

Loan restrictions for Jumbo Mortgages

A jumbo loan is required if you want to borrow more than the loan maximum for your area. In most of the country, the conforming loan ceiling for 2022 is $647,200. However, loan restrictions are higher in more affluent communities. The 2022 loan limit is $970,800 for much of California, as well as the New York and Washington, D.C. metro areas. This year, Alaska and Hawaii have a larger loan limit as well.

The Advantages of a Jumbo Mortgage

The primary advantage for borrowers is that jumbo mortgages allow them to borrow more than the restrictions set by Fannie and Freddie. A jumbo loan, for example, allows you to borrow $1 million against a $1.5 million house.

Some borrowers want to finance a larger portion of the home’s cost rather than use cash, making the jumbo mortgage a useful financial tool and part of a larger investment strategy. You can still receive a reasonable interest rate and finance the home of your choice without being limited by the conforming mortgage dollar limit.

How to Obtain a Jumbo Loan Mortgage

A jumbo loan is not available to everyone who wants one.

Jumbo mortgages are tough to obtain because they are not available from every lender. The larger the loan, the longer it takes to pay off, and the longer repayment period introduces more risk than most lenders are willing to accept. It is still possible to obtain a jumbo mortgage loan, but your interest rate will be greater than that of a standard home mortgage, and qualifying may be extremely tough.

Lynch provides us with an unprecedented inside peek at PCMA’s average jumbo mortgage client.

  • Loan Amount: $1,004,302.89
  • Loan-to-value ratio (LTV): 61.24
  • FICO Score: 740
  • Borrower Age: 61
  • Co-Borrower Age: 59
  • Years in Home: 16

For jumbo loans, lenders search for a better credit score than they do for normal mortgages. Your debt-to-income ratio is also significant, and lenders like a range of 43 percent to 36 percent.

Because of the higher loan amount of a jumbo mortgage, some banks may need proof of reserve cash, such as savings or jewels, to calm their anxieties. This can go a long way toward demonstrating to a lender that you are capable of repaying your loan.

The down payment is also higher. Many lenders would accept as little as 3% for a conventional home loan, even though personal financial experts recommend aiming for 20%. Lenders will demand down payments ranging from 15% to 30% on jumbo mortgages. Additional evaluations may be required.

Jumbo Mortgage Loan Interest Rate

While jumbo mortgages used to have higher interest rates than standard mortgages, the difference has narrowed in recent years. Today, the average annual percentage rate (APR) for a jumbo mortgage is frequently on par with conventional mortgages, if not cheaper in some circumstances. Wells Fargo, for example, charged an APR of 3.360 percent on a 30-year fixed-rate conforming loan and 3.065 percent on a jumbo loan as of January 1, 2022. 3

Despite the fact that GSEs cannot handle them, jumbo loans are frequently securitized by other financial institutions; because these securities involve higher risk, they trade at a yield premium to regular securitized mortgages. This spread, however, has been decreased by the interest rate on the loans themselves.

Jumbo Loan Down Payment

Fortunately, down payment requirements have been relaxed throughout the same time frame. Previously, jumbo mortgage lenders frequently demanded home purchasers put down 30% of the purchase price (compared to 20 percent for conventional mortgages). Now, that proportion has dropped to as low as 10% to 15%. As with any mortgage, making a larger down payment can have several advantages. It includes avoiding the cost of the private mortgage insurance that lenders charge for down payments of less than 20%.

Who Should Apply for a Jumbo Loan?

The amount you can ultimately borrow is determined by your assets, credit score, and the value of the property you want to buy. These mortgages are deemed most suitable for a subset of high-income earners earning between $250,000 and $500,000 per year. This group is known as HENRY, which stands for high earners who are not yet rich. Essentially, these are folks who make a lot of money but do not have millions of dollars in excess cash or other assets accumulated—yet.

While a member in the HENRY sector may not have earned the riches to buy a high-priced new home with cash, such high-income individuals typically have superior credit ratings and longer credit histories than the ordinary homebuyer seeking a traditional mortgage loan for a lower amount. They are also more likely to have well-established retirement accounts. They frequently have been contributing for a longer time than lower-income earners.

A jumbo loan will not provide a significant tax break. The mortgage interest deduction is restricted to $750,000 for new mortgage debt.

These are the types of people who institutions love to sign up for long-term products, partially because they frequently require additional wealth management services. Furthermore, it is more practical for a bank to manage a single $2 million mortgage than ten $200,000 loans.

Special Jumbo Mortgage Requirements

When lenders are expected to take on more risk, they will be picky about who they lend to.

#1. Lenders may demand cash reserves.

On a jumbo loan, lenders need to know that you can make steady, regular payments. Your lender will need bank statements to confirm that you have enough money in the bank to make your payments. Lenders frequently require jumbo borrowers to save up to 12 months’ worth of expenses before approving a loan.

The only method to meet reserve requirements is to have cash in your bank account. Lenders may consider up to 70% of your retirement account, so you don’t have to pay out everything to meet the reserve criterion. Business and gift cash may also contribute to your reserve requirements in specific situations.

#2. Closing costs have risen.

Closing expenses are typically between 3% and 6% of the entire home value, but jumbo loans have substantially greater closing fees than standard mortgages. On a $700,000 mortgage, you can anticipate paying between $35,000 and $53,000 in cash at closing.

#3. Consistent Earnings

Jumbo loans are only available to buyers with consistent and predictable income. When applying for a conventional loan, lenders frequently request up to two years’ worth of W-2s, tax records, and 1099s. With a jumbo loan, your lender may request more documents and confirmation that your income is unlikely to change after you obtain the loan.

#4. Manual Underwriting

Jumbo loans are frequently underwritten by hand. A financial professional will go over your credit record, assets, and bank statements with a fine-toothed comb. Thus, they’ll bring to light any previous mistakes. If you have a bankruptcy or foreclosure on your credit history, you will have a more difficult time obtaining a jumbo loan.

Are Jumbo Loans Challenging to Obtain?

Large loans that exceed the federal loan limit are referred to as jumbo mortgages. These loans can provide competitive interest rates, but they are often more difficult to qualify for than conforming loans. They’re also an easy way for borrowers to get the cash they require to buy pricey residences.

What Benefits Do Jumbo Loans Offer?

Jumbo loans give borrowers the option of making a lesser down payment with private mortgage insurance or a 20% down payment (PMI). Depending on your salary, credit history, budget, and other qualifying characteristics, that might translate into big upfront savings with different options.

Is It Possible to Repay a Jumbo Loan Early?

Most mortgage lenders permit borrowers to make annual loan payments of up to 20%. Instead, a mortgage prepayment penalty frequently occurs when major portions of a loan are refinanced, sold, or otherwise paid off.

What Distinguishes a Jumbo Mortgage from a Conforming Mortgage?

By providing a maximum that is significantly higher than that for conforming loans, jumbo loans live up to their name. Jumbo loans are made for high incomes who want to buy more expensive residences, whereas conforming loans are made for the average homebuyer.

What Does Jumbo Have Going Against It?

Jumbo loans will typically be more difficult to obtain because they are nonconforming and have greater values than normal mortgages. The borrower may be required to set aside a reserve equal to up to a year’s worth of mortgage payments in order to qualify for a jumbo loan. This need can be lowered with a larger down payment and better credit.


Even in the most expensive real estate markets, jumbo loans make homeownership possible.

A jumbo loan is required if you wish to buy a property in a highly-priced market. The good news is that these loans are becoming easier to obtain and qualify for online.

Jumbo Mortgage FAQs

What is a 30 year jumbo?

A 30-year fixed jumbo mortgage is a house loan with a fixed interest rate that is repaid over 30 years.

Does jumbo loan require 20%?

Lenders frequently request a 20% down payment on jumbo loans for single-family homes. A larger down payment may also be required for second residences and multifamily buildings.

What is the maximum debt to income ratio for a jumbo loan?

The maximum debt-to-income ratio cannot exceed 45 percent.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You May Also Like