PRESENT VALUE OF ANNUITY: Definition, Formula, and Calculator

Present value of annuity

When it comes to retirement planning, an annuity can be a useful tool. You’ll be relying on your savings and Social Security payments to support yourself and enjoy your golden years once you’ve retired. An annuity provides an additional income stream, which can make life easier. Let’s look at how to calculate the present value of an annuity, the formula, the calculator, and how it may affect your retirement.

What is the Present Value of an Annuity?

The present value of an annuity is the current cash value of all future payments, influenced by the annuity’s rate of return or discount rate. It’s critical to remember the time value of money when calculating the present value of an annuity because it takes inflation into account. The lower the rate of return on an annuity, the higher the present value of the annuity.

The time value of money is used to calculate the present value of an annuity. According to Harvard Business School, the time value of money theory states that a sum of money is worth more now than the promise of the same sum in the future. Payments made decades ago are worth less today due to uncertain economic conditions. Current payments, on the other hand, have more value because they can be invested in the meantime.

As a result, $10,000 in your hand today is worth more than $10,000 in ten years.

If you own an annuity or receive payments from a structured settlement, you may choose to sell future payments to a purchasing company in exchange for cash now. Having early access to these funds can help you pay off debt, repair your car, or put down a down payment on a house.

The present value formula, along with other variables, is used by companies that buy annuities to calculate the value of future payments in today’s dollars.

What Is the Formula for Calculating the Present Value of an Annuity?

To calculate the present value of an annuity is part of determining how much your annuity is worth — and whether you are getting a fair deal when you sell your payments.

You will need specific information, such as the discount rate offered by a purchasing company, to understand and apply the present value of the annuity formula.

When using the present value formula, you will need the following information:

  • Each fixed payment’s monetary value
  • How many payments do you want to sell?
  • Rate of discount

P = PMT * (1 – ( 1/(1+r)^n))/r

Present Value of Annuity Formula

An Example of How To Calculate Present Value of Annuity

Using the above formula, you can calculate the present value of an annuity and decide whether a lump sum or an annuity payment is a better option. Here’s an example of how it might work. It should be noted that this formula is for a regular annuity.

Assume you have the choice of a $25,000 annuity for 20 years or a $300,000 lump sum at a 5% discount rate. The following numbers can be entered into the formula:

P = 25,000 x ((1 – (1 / (1 + .05) ^ -20)) / .05)

That works out to $311,555 when you do the math. This means that the value of the annuity is greater than the lump sum for this particular annuity, and you’d be better off taking the annuity payments rather than the lump sum.

When Should You Use An Annuity Present Value Calculator?

The Present Value of the Annuity Calculator is most commonly used to calculate the cash value of a court settlement, retirement funding requirements, or loan payments.

For example, a court settlement may entitle the recipient to $2,000 per month for 30 years, but the receiving party may be hesitant to be paid over time and instead request a cash settlement. The present value of an annuity formula would then be used to calculate the equivalent value. As a result of discounting, the present value cash settlement will be less than the total of all future payments (time value of money).

When buying and selling mortgages, real estate investors use the Present Value of Annuity Calculator. The mortgage represents a future payment stream that combines interest and principal and can be discounted back to a present cash value, allowing the investor to calculate how much the mortgage is worth. This informs the investor whether the price he is paying is greater than or less than the expected value.

Because present value calculations involve the compounding of interest, which means that the interest on your money earns interest, they can be difficult to model in spreadsheets. Our Present value annuity calculator, fortunately, solves these issues for you by converting all of the math headaches into point-and-click simplicity.

Terms and Definitions forPresent Value Annuity Calculator

  • Annuity – A fixed sum of money paid to someone, usually once a year for the rest of their life.
  • Payment/Withdrawal Amount – This is the total of all annuity payments received or made (loan) on the annuity. This is a series of payments that will occur in the future, expressed in nominal, or today’s, dollars.
  • Annual Interest Rate (%) – The annuity’s annual interest rate. The interest rate will be used by the present value annuity calculator to discount the payment stream to its present value.
  • Number of Years To Calculate Present Value – The number of years the annuity is expected to be paid or received.
  • Payment/Withdrawal Frequency – The frequency with which you want the present value annuity calculator to calculate the present value. The frequency can be set to monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually.
  • Present Value Of An Annuity – This is the present value of the annuity for which you entered information. The present value of any future value lump sum and future cash flows (payments).

When Do You Calculate the Present Value of Annuity?

The cash value of recurring payments in court settlements, retirement funds, and loans is commonly calculated using the present value of an annuity. It is also used to calculate whether a mortgage payment is greater than or less than an expected value. These payments are sometimes referred to as annuities.

The Effect of Discount Rates on Present Value

Discount rates are used by factoring companies, or companies that will buy your annuity or structured settlement, to account for market risks such as inflation and to make a small profit by granting you early access to your payments. The value of an annuity and the amount of money you receive from a purchasing company are both affected by the discount rate.

The standard discount rate ranges between 9% and 18%. They can be higher, but they are usually in the middle. The higher the present value, the lower the discount rate. Low-interest rates enable you to keep more of your money.

Most states require factoring companies to disclose discount rates and present value during the transaction process, according to the Internal Revenue Service. Always request these numbers ahead of time. It’s also worth noting that the value of distant payments is lower for purchasing firms due to economic factors. The sooner you receive a payment owed to you, the more money you will receive for that payment. Payments due in the next five years, for example, are worth more than payments due in the next 25 years. Remember this during the selling process.

What Factors Influence the Present Value of an Annuity?

A few factors can influence the present value of an annuity. These are some examples:

  • The interest rate: The higher the interest rate, the lower the annuity’s present value. This is due to the fact that the interest rate is used to discount future payments.
  • The time it will take to receive the payments: The greater the time elapsed between payments, the greater the present value of the annuity. This is because compound interest has more time to grow on the investment.
  • The amount of each payment: The greater the periodic payments, the greater the annuity’s present value. This is due to the fact that the payments are more valuable in today’s dollars.

These are just a few of the factors that can influence an annuity’s present value. When deciding whether or not to invest in an annuity, it is critical to consider all of these factors.

Annuity Due vs. Ordinary Annuity

The timing of annuity payments — whether at the start or end of a period — has an impact on present value calculations.

Annuity due refers to payments that are made on a regular basis at the start of each period. Rent is a classic example of an annuity due to the fact that it is paid at the start of each month.

An ordinary annuity is a type of retirement account in which you receive a fixed or variable payment from an insurance company at the end of each month or quarter based on the value of your annuity contract.

Annuities Explained

An annuity is a financial agreement between you and an insurance company. You will pay a certain amount of money upfront or as part of a payment plan in exchange for a predetermined annual payment. You can receive annuity payments indefinitely or for a set period of time. One of the benefits of annuities is regular payments.

Annuity contracts are classified into three types:

  • Fixed annuities provide fixed interest rates paid over a set period of time.
  • Variable annuities do not have guaranteed payouts, so you will have more freedom to invest your money in different ways, and your payments will be tied to the performance of those investments. This can result in higher returns, but it also has the potential to result in lower returns.
  • Indexed annuities are hybrid annuities that combine elements of fixed and variable annuities. An indexed annuity is one that tracks a stock market index, such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and pays out a percentage of the index’s return.

Remember that money invested in an annuity grows tax-free. That is, when you begin making withdrawals, the amount you contributed to the annuity is not taxed, but your earnings are taxed at your regular income tax rate.


An annuity’s present value is the amount of money you would need to invest today in order to receive a specified stream of payments in the future. The interest rate, the length of time until the payments are received, and the amount of each payment all have an impact on this calculation. When deciding whether or not to invest in an annuity, it is critical to consider all of these factors.

When considering an annuity investment, it is critical to seek the advice of a financial advisor. They can calculate you in calculating the annuity’s present value and determining whether it is a good investment for you.

Present Value of Annuity FAQs

What is present value of an annuity due?

The present value of an annuity due (PVAD) is calculated using the current value of money at the end of the number of periods specified. Another way to look at it is how much an annuity due would be worth when payments are completed in the future and delivered to the present.

What is a Present Value of 1 Table?

A present value of 1 table shows the present value discount rates for various interest rate and time period combinations. To calculate the present value, a discount rate from this table is multiplied by a cash quantity to be paid at a later date.

Why do we calculate present value?

You must choose an adequate discount rate to value future cash flows. The present value determines whether a sum of money today is more valuable than the same sum in the future. The present value demonstrates that money received in the future is not worth the money received today.


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