DEBT SECURITIES (D.S): Definition, types with examples.

debt securities

How much information do you have about debt securities?. Find out more about What are debt Securities, Debt Securities examples, debt securities vs equity securities, and Available for sale debt Securities in this amazing piece below.

Debt Securities

Debt security are the financial strength that makes their owners eligible for a chain of payments of interest.
For debt S., the interest rate is dependent on the estimated creditworthiness of the borrower.

What are debt securities? 

Debt securities are those debts that can be bought or sold between two or more parties in the marketplace before it’s maturity. 

The structure of the D.S represents a debt owed by an issuer to a lender or an investor.

The issuer can be the government, an organization, or a firm.

Furthermore, knowing what are Debt Securities, they are negotiable financial instruments meaning that they are assets or packages of capital that can be possibly traded.

Here, transfer of the legal ownership is easily done from one owner to another. 

Bonds are the most common type of such D.S

Also, A bond is a contractual agreement between a borrower and lender to pay an agreed rate of interest. Again, this is after they get to the principal at its maturity.

There are different types of debt security but these are the main types; 

#1. Bonds and notes

#2. Medium-term notes 

#3. Commercial paper (CP)

In fact, For bonds, the most common type are the government bonds, collateralized bonds, corporate bonds, municipal bonds, and zero-coupon bonds.

The Features of Debt Securities are;

#1. Issue Price and date

D.S always come with an issue price and issue date. Here, investors buy the D.S when they are first issued.

#2. Rate of coupon

For Issuers, they are required to also pay an interest rate, also known as the coupon rate.  

The coupon rate is sometimes fixed throughout the life of the security.
However, they sometimes vary with inflation and the economic situations at the time.

#3. Date Of Maturity.

Here, Date of Maturity refers to the scheduled date on which the issuer is meant to repay the principal value and the rest of the interest. 

The date of Maturity determines the term that classifies the D.S. For Short-term securities, they mature in less than one year.

Also, Medium-term securities take up to 1-3 years to mature. long-term securities attain maturity in 3 years or even more.

#4. Yield-to-Maturity (YTM)

Assuming scheduled payment of interest and principal. In the same vein, Yield-to-Maturity is the inner rate of a return on a bond that is held to maturity.

Consequently, the yield-to-maturity (YTM) measures the yearly rate of returns that an investor is meant to earn. This is measured if the debt is held to maturity. 

The YTM is useful in comparing securities with aligning maturity dates.
Also, it considers the face value, price and the bond coupon payments.

Reasons To Consider Investing In Debt Securities.

#1. Return on capital

There are so many benefits in investing in debt securities namely;

First, most investors buy D.S. to get a return on their capital. D.S. like bonds works to pay investors interest and the repayment of capital at maturity.

Again, The paying back of capital depends on the capacity of the issuer to fulfill their promises.
If this fails, there will be consequences for the issuer.

#2. A consistent flow of income from payment of interest.

Secondly, Payment of interest connected to debt security helps to provide investors with a constant flow of income throughout the year. 

Of course, There is a guarantee on constant flow of income which can also assist with the needs of investor’s cash flow.

#3. Diversification means.

Debt securities tend to also work to diversify their portfolio. This is possible depending on the strategic moves put in place by the investors.

On the other hand, for high-risk equity, investors can consider using such financial instruments to manage the risk of their portfolio.

They can also stagger the maturity dates of several debt security varying between short and long terms. It allows investors to manage their portfolios to meet future needs.

Going on, you will find debt security examples below.

Debt Securities Examples. 

Here’s a debt security example. Tony just bought a home, all thanks to a mortgage from her bank.
From Tony’s point of view, the mortgage stands as a liability that he must attend to by making constant principal and interest payments. 

Specifically, From the bank’s point of view, however, Tony’s mortgage loan is an asset. A D.S that authorizes them to a flow of interest and principal payments.

With other D.S, Tony’s mortgage agreement with his bank shows the key terms of the loan. The key terms are as such; the face value, interest rate, payment schedule, and maturity date.

In such cases, the agreement will also include the exact collateral of the mortgage loan, which is the house which she bought.

Debt Securities vs. Equity Securities

here’s all you need to know about Debt securities vs equity securities. D.S. are technically different from equities. Their differences vary between their structure, return of capital (ROC), an official or legal considerations. 

However, D.S. is technically different from equities. Debt securities vs equity varies between factors namely; their structure, return of capital (ROC), and official or legal considerations. 

D.S demands that the borrower repays the principal borrower, unlike equity securities. As a result, D.S. includes a fixed term for repayment of the principal. It also comes with an agreed schedule for payments of interest.

Therefore, to predict an investor’s earnings, you should calculate the fixed rate of return, the YTM (yield-to-maturity).

Investors may choose to sell off their debt security before it’s maturity to know the value lost or gained.

Therefore, Equities, as a result, hold higher risk than the D.S.

Overtime, Equity does not come with a fixed term, and dividend payment has no guarantee. Instead, there is a demand for the company’s discretion for the payment of the dividends.
It will also vary depending on how well the business is doing. 

Equities do not have a definite rate of return. This is because there is no schedule for dividend payment.

For instance, When sold to third parties, investors normally receive the market value of shares. Here, they tend to find out about their capital loss or gain as the case maybe on their initial investment.

Furthermore, Equity securities stand as a claim on the assets and income of a firm. while debt security stand as investments in debt instruments.

Available For Sale Debt Securities.(AFSDS)

Available for sale securities are D.S that are bought with the intention of selling it off before they attain maturity.

When the values are fair, agents for available for sale D.S. reports. Available for sale Debt security is the default category of security that firms decide to invest in. The aim is to benefit their financial position.

In accounting, the change in the value of available for sale debt securities go into a different account named Unrealized Gain/Loss.

Conclusively, in the balance sheet, unattainable losses and gains are added in the accumulated other comprehensive income within the equity section of the balance sheet.

Debt Securities FAQ

What are different types of debt securities?

  • #1. Bonds and notes
  • #2. Medium-term notes 
  • #3. Commercial paper (CP)

What are examples of debt instruments?

Here’s a debt security example. Tony just bought a home, all thanks to a mortgage from her bank.
From Tony’s point of view, the mortgage stands as a liability that he must attend to by making constant principal and interest payments. 

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