WHAT IS INTRINSIC VALUE: Meaning, Examples & How to Calculate It

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Do you wish to invest in the stock market but are unsure where to begin? Don’t fret! I’m here to assist you in selecting lucrative stocks using the intrinsic value methodology. Stay with me as I take you through all you need to know about the intrinsic value of a stock, including its options and example of how to calculate Intrinsic value.

What is Intrinsic Value?

The word “intrinsic value” is an umbrella term that refers to the true worth of any asset, such as a company’s stock. Benjamin Graham first established the concept of intrinsic value in 1934. He insisted on conducting a stock valuation based on the company’s fundamental examination. You can calculate the worth of an asset in various ways. For instance, stock and bond markets reveal the current asking prices at which buyers and sellers are transacting. However, value investors choose a different valuation metric known as “intrinsic value.”

Understanding an investment’s intrinsic worth might help you make more educated financial decisions. Warren Buffett, the CEO of Berkshire Hathaway, bases his investment philosophy on the rule, “Never invest in a company you don’t understand.” This is what the idea of “intrinsic value” is about. Based on Ben Graham’s calculation of intrinsic value, financial experts now use it to figure out which stocks are good investments.

How Does Warren Buffett Define Intrinsic Value?

Buffett adheres to the value investing philosophy outlined by Benjamin Graham. Value investors are interested in buying shares that are selling at prices that cannot be rationalized based on the innate worth of the company. The vast majority of the time, an analysis of a company’s fundamentals is used to determine its innate worth. Although no one method is universally acknowledged for calculating it.

What Is Another Word for Intrinsic Value?

The intrinsic value is sometimes referred to as the “true value.” It is also known as “innate worth,” i.e., the price that a sensible investor is willing to pay for an investment given the level of risk that the venture entails.

What Is Intrinsic Value Example?

You’ve almost certainly encountered an example of intrinsic value without even realizing it.

Example of intrinsic value include:

  • Playing a sport for its own sake rather than as a means to an end (such as a medal)
  • Pursuing language study for personal growth, not professional advancement.
  • Associating with someone for no other reason than to have a good time, rather than to advance your social position
  • Doing the chores because you take pleasure in a clean home rather than to appease your partner
  • Instead of playing for financial gain, you play cards because you like the competition.
  • Enjoying the process of working out your body rather than using it as a means to an end (such weight loss or fitting into a certain dress size).
  • Giving back to the community not because you have to but because it makes you happy and pleased
  • You’re not training for a race, but rather you’re going for a run because it relaxes you or because you want to set a personal best.
  • Accepting additional responsibilities at work not in order to advance in rank but because you appreciate the challenge they present and the sense of accomplishment they bring.
  • In lieu of selling your paintings for financial gain, paint for the pure joy of it.

Also see: VALUE INVESTING: Detailed Guide to Value Investing Strategy

How to Calculate Intrinsic Value

Whether it’s a corporation, a bond, or a piece of real estate, the discounted cash flow method can be used to calculate the intrinsic value of any prolonged investment or asset. Using the DCF model, we will calculate the intrinsic value of a public corporation. Hence, to do so you will require the following three terminals:

  • How much money the company is expected to make in the future.
  • The rate used to figure out the present value of the estimated cash flows in the future.
  • A way to figure out how much the company is worth at the end of our cash flow estimate.

Here’s how to calculate the intrinsic value when you have these three terminals:

The DCF implies: Discounted Cash Flow

CF: Cash flow in the first, second, and subsequent years.

TV: Terminal Value

r: Discount rate

Does the US Dollar Have Intrinsic Value?

No, it doesn’t. However, people want it because they can use it to buy and sell things. In an economy, a currency’s main job is to act as a medium of exchange, making it easier for people to trade goods and services with each other.

What Is Intrinsic Value in Options?

Simply expressed, the intrinsic value of options corresponds to the option contract’s current market value. As a result, when you talk about this, it symbolizes how much “in the money” the contract is right now. The phrase “in the money” suggests that the actual asset’s value is greater than the market price. However, when you comprehend this, you will have a better understanding of the concept of intrinsic value in options. Let me illustrate this using an example:

A call option contract, for example, has a market price of $ 200, while the stock price is currently $ 300. The intrinsic value of options would be like this: 300 minus 200, i.e., $100. If a buyer decides to exercise their buying right, they must pay the market price of $200 and can sell the shares on the market for $300. As a result, a profit of $100 is made. In addition, this calculates how much a buyer can benefit or lose at any point in time before the options contract expires. It is worth noting that “out of the money” deals will always have an intrinsic value of zero. This is because no buyer will undertake any rights if there will be a resulting loss.

How to Calculate Intrinsic Value in Options

Every associated term uses the same formula to figure out the option premium. Here, too, you can use the following formula to calculate  the intrinsic value of options

Intrinsic Value in Options = Options Premium – Time Value

Also note that the premium amount, whether payable or receivable, can be used in conjunction with the time value of the contract to determine the current value of the contract at any point before its expiration.

What Is Extrinsic and Intrinsic Value?

The value that something has “in itself,” “for its own sake,” “as such,” or “in its own right” is referred to as the thing’s “intrinsic value.” Similar phrases include “for its own sake,” “as such,” and “in its own right.” However, extrinsic value is value that comes from somewhere other than oneself. The concept of an object’s “innate worth” is central to the work of several different philosophers who study ethics.

What Is Intrinsic Value of Stock

The phrase “intrinsic value of stock” refers to the value at which stock should be marketed. It is used in the broadest sense possible. It can also be defined as the value of one share of the company’s stock in the context of an active business. To simplify matters too much, one may say that the correct worth of stocks is equivalent to their intrinsic value.

There is also a formula that takes more technical things about this into account. According to this interpretation, the “intrinsic value” of a stock is equal to the sum of all of the company’s future cash flows, which have been “discounted back” to account for the changing value of money over time.

How to Calculate the Intrinsic Value of Stock

The following are the several ways to calculate the intrinsic value of a stock.

#1. Dividend Discount Model

The Dividend Discount Model, or DDM, is a way to figure out how much a stock is worth by figuring out how much all of its future dividend payments are worth right now. To put it another way, the total represents the value, after discounting, of all of the predicted future dividends that the company would pay out to calculate the net present value. Hence, if the stock price determined by the DDM is lower than the price at which it is currently trading on the market, then the stock is overvalued. In a similar vein, the stock price is considered overvalued if it is higher than the present price of the market. To calculate under DDM, use the following formula:

Intrinsic Value of Stock = EDPS / ( CCE – DGR ) 

EEPS: Dividends per share that is expected

CCE: Equity cost of Capital

DGR: Growth in dividends

#2. The Discounted Cash Flow Model

Here, the innate worth of a stock is typically determined using the discounted cash flow model (also known as DCF). This approach calculates a firm’s true worth by discounting future free cash flows at an appropriate rate of return. A discount rate is applied to these anticipated cash flows to derive the net present value.

The discount rate is typically the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC). As an investor, this is the minimum rate of return you’ll accept on your stock purchase. If the value found using this method is higher than the current market price of the stock, the investment may be profitable. The formula for DCF is as follows:

Intrinsic value of Stock = (CF1/(1+r)^1) + (CF2/(1+r)^2) + (CF3/(1+r)^3) +……..+(CFn/(1+r)^n)

CF1: Cash flow for the first year and subsequent years.

CFn: Cash flow for an N-year period

Lastly, “ r” represents the discount rate

#3. Method of Relative Valuing

The relative valuation method is the best way to figure out what a stock is worth. This strategy looks at the company’s sales, net income, profits, book value, outstanding shares, etc., as well as its current market value. This helps to determine whether the stock price of the company is undervalued or overvalued. Consequently, employing various financial ratios assists in determining the performance of a business. You can also determine the company’s overall financial condition. The following ratios are also utilized to calculate the intrinsic value of a stock:

  • Price to book value
  • Earnings-to-price ratio
  • Price to earnings ratio
  • Return on investment
  • Equity to debt ratio

Just before you leave, you may want to see: STOCK VALUATION: Overview,& Effective Valuation Methods

What Is the Main Difference Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic?

The intrinsic value of something is defined as its worth “in itself,” “for its sake,” “as being such,” or “in its right.” However, extrinsic value is a value that does not come from within. Many philosophers believe that intrinsic value is critical in making moral decisions.

Does Bitcoin Have Intrinsic Value? 

Although bitcoin has its features, such as being a store of value and a means of exchange. However, its worth is derived mainly from belief in the issuing authority rather than anything intrinsic.

What Type of Money Has Innate Worth?

Commodity money has innate worth because it has other uses. Also, fiat money has no real value because the government allows it to be used as a way to buy things. 

Is Human Life an Intrinsic Value?

Yes, it is. The sacred nature of human life begins when its biological life begins. Even before the creature whose life it is has movement or sensation or interests or rights of its own. 

In a Nutshell

Investors can benefit from learning how to calculate intrinsic value in order to determine an asset’s real worth. That’s because an investment’s true worth can’t be evaluated solely by its current market price but also by its expected stream of future profits.

Thus, knowing an investment’s inherent worth is important for value investors since it tells them whether or not the price they’re paying is fair. This is a crucial concept in the analysis of securities, so it is important for investors to learn how to determine it.


  1. open.lib.umn.edu
  2. investopedia.com
  3. en.wikipedia.org
  4. quora.com
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